Transformation to IPv6 Networks

Contributor:  Khoa D. Tran

IPv6 is the next generation Internet Protocol (IP) standard intended to eventually replace IPv4, the protocol many Internet services still use today.

Developed in 1981, IPv4 was the first type of IP addresses known as “Internet Protocol Version 4”. In this case, there are a possible 4.3 billion unique IP addresses. However, as the Internet of Things expand to greater sizes, the creation of IPv6 has to be developed.

Every IPv4 address is 32 bits longs. An example:

128.24.425.2

Now the difference here for IPv6, the IP address is 128 bits long. An example:

 

 

Significance of IPv6 Addresses

Besides allowing for the expansion of unique IP address to 340 trillion trillion trillion IP addresses or 3.4 * 1038, IPv6 can be created automatically by your host, allowing for elimination of both Network Address Translation (NAT), and Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). Another important aspect of IPv6 is through its tight security as it allows for a greater line of defense against hackers. IPv6 can run end-to-end encryption, as the encryption and integrity-checking currently used in virtual private networks (VPNs) are a standard component in IPv6, available for all connections and compatible with all devices and systems. Lastly the ability to connect between IoT devices allowing networked connected devices to speak to each other allows for greater inventions and connectivity of a network system.

The Transition Mechanism from IPv4 to IPv6

Steps for the transition between IPv4 to IPv6 with dual stack (IPv4 and IPv6 coexist in the same device):

  1. Replace all IPv4-only devices with dual stack devices
  2. Once all devices support both protocols, then introduce IPv6-only devices but a dual stack device still requires an IPv4 address

Tunneling

Configured or automatic tunnels—Ipv6 as IPv4 packet payload and vice versa

To minimize any dependencies during the transition, all the routers in the path between two IPv6 nodes do not need to support IPv6. This mechanism is called tunneling. Basically, IPv6 packets are placed inside IPv4 packets, which are routed through the IPv4 routers. The following figure illustrates the tunneling mechanism through IPv4 routers.

 

The different uses of tunneling in the transition follow:

  1. Configured tunnels between two routers, as in the previous figure
  2. Automatic tunnels that terminate at the dual hosts

There are different kinds of tunneling techniques that can be used:

  • Configured Tunneling.In router-to-router and host-to-router tunneling method, the IPv6 packet is tunneled to a router. The tunnel endpoint is an intermediary router. The intermediary router at the end of the tunnel de-encapsulates the IPv6 packet and forwards it to the final destination. The IPv6 packet does not provide any information about the tunnel endpoint IPv4 address. The node creating the tunnel provides configuration information that determines the tunnel endpoint IPv4 address.
  • Automatic Tunneling. In the host-to-host and router-to-host tunneling methods, the IPv6 packet is tunneled until its final destination. The tunnel endpoint is the IPv6 packet’s final destination, the IPv6 packet’s destination determines the tunnel endpoint. There is no need to configure the tunnel endpoint address.
  • ISATAP Tunnels. Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol is another method of tunneling where the tunnels are automatically defined and not statically defined. These tunnels are primarily used between hosts and routers, manually configured tunnels are used between routers. It is automatic in the sense that is it created only when it is needed.
  • 6 to 4 Tunneling.It is defined by IETF, and it is similar to a manual tunneling, except that the tunnel is set up automatically. IPv6 addresses are a concatenation of a special IPv6 prefix with the 32-bit IPv4 address of the router where the tunnel terminates.

Stateless IP/ICMP translation (SIIT):

Translates IP header fields, NAT Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) maps IPv6 to IPV4 addresses. The Request for Comment (RFC) however does not specify how to perform address assignment or how to route to and from IPv6 hosts when communicating with IPv4 hosts.

  • Application-Level Gateway (ALG)intercepts traffic and converts between IPv6 and IPv4 protocols. It is an IP device running dual-stack and can have native access to both IPv6 and IPv4 services. ALGs are used as proxies to perform protocol translation with one proxy server per application (HTTP, FTP, SMTP.). The advantage is to have only IPv4 addresses for these proxy servers. Where firewalls and proxies are already utilized (many LAN implementations) this will not imply a high price to be paid. Unfortunately, ALGs are not able to handle all services, in particular those with end-to-end requirements.
  • Bump-In-the-Stack (BIS) and Bump-In-the-API (BIA)are NAT-PT implementations within a host. It is used where organizations cannot upgrade their applications running on hosts and servers to use IPv6. BIS/BIA intercept system calls to IPv4 functions and dynamically respond with IPv6 information. BIS enable the communication of IPv4 applications on an IPv4 host to communicate with an IPv6 host. It is not designed for the initial stage in the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, but it will be most probably used for the interoperability of legacy IPv4 applications with IPv6 applications.

Challenges of Migrating to an IPv6 Network

  • Incompatibility between IPv6 and IPv4. IPv6
  • has been designed as an alternative to IPv4, and not as its extension. This limits the feasibility of a straightforward transition plan.
  • Incoherence with not creating a transition plan from IPv4 to IPv6.
  • Not enabling IPv6 addressees to “communicate” with IPv4 addressees. The entire Internet infrastructure cannot switch overnight from IPv4 to IPv6.
  • Stepwise transition due the fact that the transition will take years and it is quite impossible to synchronize the processes at different sites. IPv4 and IPv6 network equipment will be required to coexist and offer interoperability.
  • No feasible mapping scheme to map IPv4 to IPv6 addresses (IPv6 hosts can have more than one IPv6 address)
  • IPv6 is still an evolving standard

What is VMWare And Its Uses?

Before knowing about VMware, we have to consider the basic thing that what is “Virtualization”. VMWare is nothing but just a company providing virtualization.

It is a U.S. based company that actually introduced virtualization. The workstations of VMWare provide best scenarios of virtualization which allows running of different OS on the same desktop or host.

In VMware server virtualization, a physical server is used for installing a hypervisor that is then connected to multiple virtual machines (VMs). These machines run on the same physical server. Every VM has its own operating system (OS), that simply means multiple Operating Systems are running on a single server. They work by sharing resources like RAM.

Vmware provides most famous workstation for creating virtual machines right on a computer. Information Technology Pros, Software Developers, Web Developers, and technology enthusiasts use it widely.

A screenshot of Workstation

What is Virtualization

Virtualization means the immitated version of something real like OS, server, storage or any resource.

You can understand this quite clearly if you have ever did partitioning of your drives. It is actually that logical partitioning of a drive into two separated areas.

In computing terms, virtualization is the virtual creation of an actual device or source like servers, networks or operating systems into one or more executable environments.

VMWare Uses

VMWare has become an important aspect of modern industry.

  1. VMware allows you to learn about back end web development.
  2. You can run other operating systems on your workstation.
  3. It is very helpful for IT experts to test and configure the changes on the system without any extra efforts.
  4. System engineers can go to any plane with the help of VMWare Workstation to perform demos at client sites.
  5. It is a great tool for testing an environment in an isolated system.
  6. There is no need to use a different Operating System on different machines rather than that, multiple OS can be checked on the same system.

With the advent of cloud technologies, VMWare has also increased to be a leader of big corporations and technologies. Its prevailing use has convinced the industrialists to adopt it.

Many of the engineers are now striving hard to get certification and pieces of training in VMWare.

Do you want yourself to be trained and get a reputed post? You can! Logic Finders is providing virtualization training to help you get certified and secure the best option. To know more about this, follow the link below:

https://www.logicfinder.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/course-8.pdf

The Properties of VMs:

VMs have the following properties.

Sharing

  • You can run multiple operating systems (OS) on a single physical machine
  • System resources can be divided or shared

Security Isolation

  • Virtual Machines can provide security isolation
  • The performance of the system can be preserved with advanced resource controls

Encapsulation

  • Encapsulation is very common and you can hide the whole state of a VM to files
  • Moving and copying of virtual machines is as easy as copying files

Independence from Hardware

  • VMs provide provisioning or migration of virtual machine to a physical server.

 

Software Defined Networking Companies

Software Defined Networking has a wide number of accepted companies or data storage centers which we will discuss today. These companies are very popular among journalists and vendors:

Image result for SDn companies'

Source:Ingram

  1. HiveIO

HiveIO’s Hive Fabric allows management and least costs for PaaS, virtual desktop infrastructure or shared storage apps.

HiveIO was founded in 2015 as the youngest software-defined storage vendors. 2017 was the year when it acquired Atlantis Computing. It was an SDS vendor that raised $32.3 million funding in 2006.

HiveIO is a private company and has headquarters in Hoboken, and New Jersey. It receives funding from Rally Ventures, Citrix Systems, Inc., Osage Venture Partners (OVP) and El Dorado Ventures.

HiveIO’s landmark product is Hive Fabric platform. It is used for data center virtualization, including SDS capabilities.

  1. Cisco

Cisco is the most famous considered vendor that insists its users to opt software defined storage, but to your astonishment it does not has its own SDS. Rather it works in collaboration with vendors such as IBM, Red Hat, Scality, Cohesity, DataCore, Hedvig, Nexenta, StorMagic and VMware.

It has UCS S-Series whose salient features are:

  • Modular architecture
  • 600 TB data storage
  • Dual server nodes with Intel Xeon processors
  • I/O expansion capabilities
  • NVMe and flash support.
  • Storage management (policy based)
  • Ethernet support.

Its Price range starts from $26,666.67.

  1. DataCore

DataCore was founded in 1988 and is the earliest storage virtualization. Its landmark product is SANsymphony. On the Storage Performance Council’s SPC-1 benchmark it formed world record owing to its performance and price performance.

SANsymphony is the best product of the company and the company uses it for improvement of availability, optimization, reduction in the cost, and centralized management. It mainly focusses on the healthcare, government and educational departments.

It is a claim of DataCore that its customers experience 75% reduced storage costs, 10x faster performance, 100% storage-related downtime reduction and 90 times more productivity.

Its salient features are Parallel I/O Technology, greater availability, asynchronous replication, data protection, least TCO and single-pane management. It can support 64 server nodes. It is such an amazing inention that it can run on Windows, Hyper-V kernel, VM with a Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware vSphere, Citrix XenServer or KVM hypervisor.

SANSymphony has different prices based on storage capacity, nodes, and other features.

Additionally with SANSymphony software-only product, the company offers device for integrating Lenovo hardware with DataCore’s SDS software.

4. FalconStor

FalconStor was in controversies for so many years. Nowadays its only product available is FreeStor. It is a software that incorporates artificial intelligence with machine learning. The company claims that 23% of the Fortune Global 500 use Falconstor.

FreeStor has many salient features that distinguishes it from others. They are data migration capabilities, higher availability, protection and recovery of data, optimization of storage, multi-tenancy and greater support

  1. Hedvig

Hedvig is a software defined vendor which offers the Hedvig Distributed Storage Platform, and claims that it can reduce storage costs up to 60%, and offers SDS solution with block, file and object storage to provide working with OS, hypervisor, private or public cloud.

Its salient features include provisioning, encryption, client and server-side SSD caching, zero-impact volume snapshots and clones, inline deduplication and compression, hybrid multisite replication. It can support 1000 nodes at a time.

These were some of the companies. The list is much longer to go.

What Can You Do With Python?

Image result for what can you do with python

Source: YouTube

There is a terror of Python seen in youngsters. They think that Python is a rough language with complexity and may be, it is not a fruitful language. But this misconception is going to clear out in today’s post when you will get to know about its wider, unknown aspect. So let’s indulge in.

Get rid of boring stuff

Python is really a fun language. You can get rid of all the boring black and white interfaces by using Python. Python is widely used in 3D games development which is development and fun at the same time. So be free from boring routine  Python.

Web Development with Python

Playing with the concepts of Python is very easy as it is an object-oriented language. Due to its ease, it is even used by researchers in Machine Learning and Big Data.

While developing any website it is very cool to work in Django and Pyramid. Micro frameworks like flask and bottle are also very advantageous while building websites from scratch.

Django CMS and Plone can make possible the advanced content management. The library of Python also supports HTML,XML and JSON.

Numerical Computation

Data analysis is an important aspect of Numerics and computation. To tackle the problems of mathematics, science and engineering SciPY of python is very beneficial. There is another data science library called Pandas. It has so much to offer in Data Science.

Python is really a blessing as such functions are hard to get anywhere else.

Powerful Shell

Python has a powerful, interactive shell called IPython that supports parallel computing and visualization.

Function Decorators

Python has quite a distinctive and neat function decorators. They allow you to enhance the functionality of existing functions. Web development and data analytics can make good use of such functionalities.

Cool functions

Python supports some really cool functions of machine learning such as:

  • Fingerprint Identification.
  • Stock predicting.
  • Spam detection.

Python modules like TensorFlow, Scikit-learn, and Theano are really helpful in this regard.

Automated Post

Another cool feature is that you can automate your web browser to do social web posts on your behalf. Now that is what we call cooooll!

Selenium with Python can do that.

The brain of the robot

The brain of robot raspberry pi is also programmed by Python.

The Python is evolving really fast in data analytics and robotics. These fields are our future. If we really want to exist happily in this world, some good knowledge of Python is a must. Don’t have the required knowledge? Do not worry you still can exist if you join Logic Finders for getting grip on Python basics. You can learn Python in just a week if you join us. To get detailed information about the course and its offerings, check the link below

https://www.logicfinder.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/course-1.pdf

Still, don’t have time? No worries at all. You can also buy our book of Python Scripting valid for engineers and non-engineers to be the best in network automation. This book has everything in detail. Get your copy from the link below

https://www.amazon.com/Python-Scripting-Network-Engineers-Automation/dp/172879168

 

 

Review of Architecture of SDN

SDN is nothing but an architectural model that aims to provide flexibility and agility to networks. It allows quick response to dynamic changes in the services and businesses.

SDN Architecture

SDN architecture is a way to show how networking systems are built by open technologies and hardware which separates control plane and data plane.

SDN Planes

SDN has three architectural planes used for performing operations:

  1. Data Plane:

Frame or packet forwarding is handled by the data plane.

For instance, it handles:

  • Encapsulation.
  • De-capsulation.
  • Checking the MAC address table for determining exit interface.
  • Checking the IP routing table for determining exit interface.
  • Traffic filtering with access control lists (ACLs).
  • Encryption of traffic.
  1. Control Plane: 

The control plane is responsible for the control of the data plane. A switch’s MAC address table and a router’s IP routing table is populated by the control plane. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), IP routing protocols and other protocols run on the control plane.

  1. Management Plane: 

The administrative tasks and access of a network device is handled by the management plane. For instance, connecting a router or switch by Telnet or Secure Shell session, is done by the management plane.

Also the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) communication occurs by the management plane.

Distributed vs. Centralized Control Planes

If there exists a number of network devices, with own data planes, control planes, and management planes individually, we call them as distributed control plane.

To run the networks more efficiently, there are some SDN installations which allow to have a network controller, and movement of the control planes in the network controller.

Image result for distributed control plane

Distributed Control Plane

The network controller is further used for communication with the routers and switches. The communication takes place as a two-way communication. The network controller can communicate or send info to the routers and then get back information from those devices.

If the control plane resides on a centralized network controller, then it is referred to as a centralized control plane.

Image result for centralized control plane

Centralized Control Plane

 

To get to know about how this communication takes place and all the hidden facts of SDN, refer to Logic Finder’s SDN courses

https://www.logicfinder.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/course-2.pdf