A Roadmap Towards Lower Latency-5G

5G offers many competitive advantages and among them one is the lower latency. There is seen an evolution in the slot-based framework.
Jas we know the case that 3G and 4G coexist, same is with 4G and 5G and their infrastructure and edge devices are going to be dual mode. It simply eases the transition.
Technologies in Release 15 have:

  • OFDM-based air interface to support the diverse spectrum
  • slot-based framework which enables low latency
  • advanced channel coding for supporting large data blocks
  • massive MIMO that allows for increased coverage and capacity
  • millimeter wave (mmWave) for more higher throughput

We have seen almost none discussing the slot-based framework in 5G- New Radio. It refers to 5G and G together. It adjusts latency and quality of service (QoS) as required.

LTE allows 15 kilohertz subcarrier spacing, and 1 millisecond slots for twenty symbols. Whereas, 5G allows 15 kHz subcarrier with a 1 millisecond slot for 14 symbols.

Talking about 5G it has another option too (actually a lot), that includes 30 kHz subcarrier, 500 microsecond slot plus “mini-slot,” 60 kiloHertz with a 250 microsecond slot, and 120 kiloHertz with a 125 microsecond slot.

The 120 kHz allows most effective millimeter wave communications.
The mini-slot means more symbols in one slot. An ordinary slot carries only one symbol whereas a mini-slot can carry upto seven. It is a great push to IoT applications.

The TDD slots’ structure is variable and additional headers can be included.

Channel coding plays a very important role and low latency for quick decoding. The best choice standards for working in 5G are multi-edge low density parity check (LDPC).MIMO also plays its imp part for spectrum reuse and all these things together makes better communication.

mmWave spectrum along with MIMO and beamforming, allows spectrum at a very high rate
Dual connectiviand the ability to leverage 4G and 5G at same time will allow switching between two which means dual connectivity and more capacity.

The user plane is on 5G NR, as on transitioning from LTE to 5G while control is provided with LTE enhanced packet core (EPC).

        Source: Qualcomm

IoT applications will really get benefit from low latency. For instance use of resource spread multiple access (RSMA) technology. Other applications include vehicle-to-vehicle communications; integrated access and backhaul; and non-terrestrial (satellite) 5G NR.

Commercially talking, it is still testing and prototyping. For instance Qualcomm, doing 5G NR interoperability testing with AT&T, China Mobile, Docomo, SK Telecom, Sprint, Telstra, Verizon, Vodafone, Ericsson, Nokia, ZTE, and some other companies are working on 5G NR technology.

                                                 Source: Qualcomm
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